I think the best rage games are games with perfect controls, with perhaps slightly unfair challenge (e.g. ‘Cat Mario’), or just overall very difficult (e.g. ‘Celeste’ or Hollow Knight's ‘Path of Pain’). You might get some inspiration from an old free game ‘A Little Eggy That Could’ (https://youtu.be/zqGCIvG67rg) in which you're an egg, with very precise controls, but it's easy to fall and break, and the platforming challenges get quite hard and eventually, you're flying all over the place.
I had to retry this game more than I could count, but its difficulty stems from the very simple fact that it's very easy to overshoot or undershoot a platform because you can't in any way change your direction or speed mid-air. Otherwise, the game is quite fun. If you take it slowly and carefully, the obstacle course isn't even that difficult – you're just gradually more and more frustrated by the controls.
Perhaps that's the effect you were going for; I'd personally prefer better manoeuvrability which would come with a more difficult platforming challenge (narrow ledges, falling platforms, spikes, fans, invisible platforms…).